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Physics of musculoskeletal ultrasound

Anisotropy, friend or foe? -Dave Baker, Extended Scope Physiotherapist and MSK Sonographer (@davebakerphysio)

Images from Sonosite M-Turbo system with linear transducer 6-13MHz In order for the ultrasound machine to create an image the systems software must make a number of assumptions. The assumptions that the machine makes are:- There are a number of reasons why deviations from these assumptions occur and the variations around these assumptions give rise to many of the known artefacts associated with ultrasound image creation (Hoskins et al 2003). One of the most common artefacts we come across in clinical practice, is that of anisoptropy. Anisoptropy as a sonographic artefact is described as an ‘angle dependent appearance of tissues'. …

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Physics of musculoskeletal ultrasound

How it Works The ultrasound image is created by first transmitting sound waves into the body and then interpreting the intensity of the reflected echoes.  This is achieved using a hand held probe which contacts the body via a water based gel.  The data collected is then processed within the body of the scanner and displayed as a black and white image generally referred to as grey scale. The physics and the technology involved in ultrasound imaging has a profound effect on how structures appear. The dynamic nature of ultrasound scanning makes understanding of the processes and physics of musculoskeletal ultrasound essential. …

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